The Judiciary’s Role In American Government
Judicial Review was established by the U.S. Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison (1803) where Chief Justice Marshall wrote:
“It is emphatically the province and duty of the judiciary to say what the law is….”
Basic Judicial Requirements
Jurisdiction: “Juris” (law) “diction” (to speak) is the power of a court to hear a dispute and to “speak the law” into a controversy and render a verdict that is legally binding on the parties to the dispute.
Jurisdiction over Persons
Power of a court to compel the presence of the parties (including corporations) to a dispute to appear before the court and litigate.
Courts use long-arm statutes for non-resident parties based on “minimum contacts” with state.
Case 2.1: Cole v. Mileti (1998).
Jurisdiction over Property
Also called “in rem” jurisdiction.
Power to decide issues relating to property, whether the property is real, personal, tangible, or intangible.
A court generally has in rem jurisdiction over any property situated within its geographical borders.
Subject Matter Jurisdiction
This is a limitation on the types of cases a court can hear, usually determined by federal or state statutes.
For example, bankruptcy, family or criminal cases.
General (unlimited) jurisdiction.
Original and Appellate Jurisdiction
Courts of original jurisdiction is where the case started (trial).
Courts of appellate jurisdiction have the power to hear an appeal from another court.
Federal Court Jurisdiction
“Federal Question” cases in which the rights or obligations of a party are created or defined by some federal law.
“Diversity” cases where:
The parties are not from the same state, and,
The amount in controversy is greater than $75,000.
Exclusive vs. Concurrent Jurisdiction
Exclusive: only one court (state or federal) has the power (jurisdiction) to hear the case.
Concurrent: more than one court can hear the case.
Venue is concerned with the most appropriate location for the trial.
Generally, proper venue is whether the injury occurred.
In order to bring a lawsuit, a party must have “standing” to sue.
Standing is sufficient “stake” in the controversy; party must have suffered a legal injury.
Case 2.3: High Plains Wireless LP vs. FCC (2002)
Courts of record-court reporters.
Opening and closing arguments.
Juries are selected.
Evidence, such as witness testimony, physical objects, documents, and pictures, is introduced.
Witnesses are examined and cross-examined.
Verdicts and Judgments are rendered.
Middle level of the court systems.
Review proceedings conducted in the trial court to determine whether the trial was according to the procedural and substantive rules of law.
Generally, appellate courts will consider questions of law, but not questions of fact.
Also known as courts of last resort.
The two most fundamental ways to have your case heard in a supreme court are:
Appeals of Right.
By Writ of Certiorari.
Alternative Dispute Resolution
Trials are a means of dispute resolution that are very expensive and sometimes take many months to resolve.
There are “alternative dispute resolution” (ADR) methods to resolve disputes that are inexpensive, relatively quick and leave more control with the parties involved.
ADR describes any procedure or device for resolving disputes other than the traditional judicial process.
Unless court-ordered, there is no record which is an important factor in commercial litigation due to trade secrets.
Most common:negotiation, mediation, arbitration.
Less than 10% of cases reach trial.
Negotiation is informal discussion of the parties, sometimes without attorneys, where differences are aired with the goal of coming to a “meeting of the minds” in resolving the case.
Successful negotiation involves thorough preparation, from a position of strength.
Mini-Trial: Attorneys for each side informally present their case before a mutually agreed-upon neutral 3rdparty (e.g., a retired judge) who renders a non-binding “verdict.” This facilitates further discussion and settlement.
Conciliation: 3rdparty assists in reconciling differences.
Involves a neutral 3rdparty (mediator).
Mediator talks face-to-face with parties (who typically are in different adjoining rooms) to determine “common ground.”
Advantages: few rules, customize process, parties control results (win-win).
Disadvantages: mediator fees, no sanctions or deadlines.
Many labor contracts have binding arbitration clauses.
Settling of a dispute by a neutral 3rd party (arbitrator) who renders a legally-binding decision; usually an expert or well-respected government official.
Recall the 1997 UPS strike when US. Labor Secretary Alexis Herman helped arbitrate the strike.
Results may be unpredictable because arbitrators do not have to follow precedent or rules of procedure or evidence.
Arbitrators do not have to issue written opinions.
Generally, no discovery available.
Case begins with a submission to an arbitrator. Next comes the hearing where parties present evidence and arguments. Finally, the arbitrator renders an award.
Courts are not involved in arbitration unless an arbitration clause in a contract needs enforcement.
Providers of ADR Services
American Arbitration Association.
Better Business Bureau.
Online Dispute Resolution
Also called ODR
Uses the Internet to resolve disputes.
Still in its infancy but is gaining momentum.
Forum Selection and Choice-of-Law clauses in contracts govern the transaction.
Arbitration clauses are generally incorporated into international contracts.