Contractual Provisions Affecting Remedies
Parties to a contract can vary their rights and duties that preempt UCC provisions. Parties can stipulate whether contractual provisions are “exclusive”. However, provisions limiting consumer rights may be unconscionable.
Automobile under warranty possesses significant defect that affects vehicles use or value that cannot be fixed within statutory period.
Buyer’s remedies include:
- A new car;
- Replacement of defective parts;
- Or full refund
Remedies for Breach of International Sales
CISG provides remedies similar to the UCC:
- Monetary damages that are foreseeable, consequential damages.
- Damages are difference between contract price and market price.
Parties can agree to what law they will use.
Seller- Goods in Seller’s Possession
Seller may withhold delivery of the goods:
- If material breach by Buyer, Seller can withhold delivery of all goods.
- If non-material breach, Seller can withhold delivery of this installment. Seller can withhold delivery of all goods if Buyer is insolvent.
- Seller may rescind the contract.
- Seller may identify the goods to the contract.
- Seller may sell raw materials for scrap or finish production.
- Seller may resell the goods; and Recover damages: the difference between the contract price and the resale price + incidental damages+ damages = the market price at the time & place of tender + incidental damages – expenses saved.
- If No Damages, Seller can sue for lost profits.
- Case 22.1: Brandeis Machinery v. Capital Crane Rental (2002).
- Seller may sue Buyer for breach of contract.
- Recover Damages = the market price at the time & place of tender + incidental damages.
- If there are no damages, Seller can sue for lost profits.
Seller-Goods in Transit
Goods are “in transit” when Seller has tendered goods to Carrier.Goods are in transit until:
- Buyer is given negotiable document of title to goods.
- Buyer is given non-negotiable document of title or Bailee has acknowledged
- Buyer has had a reasonable time to pick up the goods.
- Buyer is insolvent – Seller can stop entire shipment of goods.
- Buyer is in breach – Seller may stop a whole truckload or whole container.
Buyer’s right to have the goods.
Seller has the right to stop the goods in transit if:
Seller-Goods in Buyer’s Possession
- Seller may sue for the purchase price.
- Seller may also sue Buyer if goods were “specially-made” which Seller cannot resell.
- Seller may also sue for the purchase price if the goods were destroyed and the risk had already passed to the Buyer.
- Seller can reclaim goods received by an insolvent Buyer if demand made within 10 days of receipt.
Buyer-Goods in Seller’s Possession
- Buyer Wants Goods
- Specific performance or replevin
- Recover goods from Seller if Seller becomes insolvent within 10 days after receiving first payment.
- Rescind contract.
- Cover or do not cover and sue for breach of contract.
Buyer Does Not Want Goods
Case 22.2: KGM Harvesting v. Fresh Network (1995).
Buyer-Seller Delivers Nonconforming Goods
- If Seller does not make perfect tender Buyer has the right to reject all or part of goods.
- Buyer must timely notify Seller of rejection and reasons and follow Seller’s directions.
- Buyer is entitled to commission for selling perishable goods.
- Buyer may store the goods and retain a security interest in the goods for his costs.
- Sue for breach of warranty.
- Sue for ordinary damages.
- Deduct damages from purchase price.
If Buyer has accepted non-conforming goods, she may:
Case 22.3: China National Metal Products v. Apex Digital (2001).
Contractual Provisions Affecting Remedies
- Limitation of Damages.
- Limitation of Remedies.
- Waiver of Defenses.
The majority of the states have enacted lemon laws in regard to automobile sales.Seller’s limitations were too “good.”
- Buyer must:
- Give notice.
- Seller gets four chances to fix.
- Arbitration: decision binding on manufacturer, not on Buyer.
Remedies for Breach of International Sales Contracts
CISG provides remedies similar to the UCC.Article 74 provides for money damages, foreseeable consequential damages.Damages are difference between contract price and market price.Article 28 provides for specific performance where a country would normally grant it in their own law.Parties can agree to what law they will use.